A review of the role of nutrition in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), investigating the hypothesis that the symptoms of ADHD may be ameliorated by a child’s food intake. The study reviewed research conducted between 1980 and 2002. It gives an overview of the present state of knowledge on the influences of diet on behavior and functioning and is consistent with other studies on the subject of ADHD (Arnold & DiSilvestro, 2005; Colquhoun, 1994; Dykman & Dykman, 1998; Steele, 2000; Thompson, 2003). A survey of four areas of inquiry: (1) the role that the elimination of food additives may play in the treatment of ADHD; (2) the effects of the elimination of refined sugars from the child’s diet on the symptoms of ADHD; 3) the evidence of improvement in allergies and sensitivities related to ADHD via the elimination of foods that are presumed to produce them; and 4) the state of research on essential fatty acids (EFA) levels and their effects on the symptoms of ADHD.